Nairaland Forum / Nairaland / General / Religion / 5 Factors That Led To The Spread Of Islam In Nigeria (13211 Views) 136 Christians Convert To Islam In Kwara State / Factors That Can Lead To Sexual Impurity / T.B. Joshua Takes Steps Against The Spread Of Ebola The ancient East African kingdom of Aksum gradually adopted Christianity from the early- to mid-fourth-century reign of Ezana onwards. The well-known narrative of the late Roman church-historian Rufinus relates a top-down process of conversion, starting with the ruler himself. The impetus for expansion and exploitation came with the transformation of the Roman Republic to a Roman Empire in 27 B.C.E. In 1900, nine million Christians lived in Africa compared to the 380 million in 2000. There were few secrets in such a setting. Answers. In this series we’ll briefly look at 10 reasons for Christianity’s rapid spread during its first few centuries. These evils were fought by champions like Henry Venn and Thomas Fowell. Tertullian, the “Father of Latin Christianity,” had labored in North Africa during the latter years of the second century and the early years of the third. King Ezana of the Ethiopian/Eritrean Kingdom of Aksum gave Christianity official status and facilitated the establishment of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. The reason why so many Africans are turning to Christianity is attributed to a number of factors include disillusionment with political systems and a natural attraction to religious worship. The Biblical Scholar Jerome (347--420 C.E.) Two factors that could inhibit the further spread of Christianity are:Faith. Christianity found its way to Sudan in the 1st century as well, and the region's Nubian churches had links to those in Egypt. The Main Factors in the Spread of Islam. Alistair Boddy-Evans is a teacher and African history scholar with more than 25 years of experience. The impact of Christianity on sub-Saharan Africa1 Matsobane J Manala Department of Philosophy, Practical and Systematic Theology University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract The aim of this article is to describe the impact of Christianity on sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria has particularly witnessed rapid growth in Christianity with numerous African-Christian denominations established across the nation. Once it was introduced to Africa, Christianity slowly spread from Alexandria to Ethiopia. Islam spread in West Africa through the activities and efforts of Al Murabidun( strugglers) i.e. The religion also grew in northwestern Africa where the churches maintained links with the Church of Rome. A. It was partially due to this that the Roman Empire eventually split into two, east and west. The recent growth of the religion in Africa is mainly attributed to African Evangelism. JD Fage, Volume 2, Cambridge University Press, 1979. These letters were collected and laid the foundation of Christianity’s unique holy script, the New Testament. The date of his death is unknown, but his last writings date to 220 C.E. AICs have also demonstrated a strong missionary tendency in that most of the spread of Christianity throughout Africa in the 20 th century can be attributed to African Independent Churches. By Joseph Kiprop on September 21 2017 in Society. And yet within 25 years Uganda had become one of the most successful mission fields in the whole of Africa. By the time of Emperor Claudius (10 B.C.E.--45 C.E.) In recent times the term has been applied to a vast extension of territory over 1200 miles wide stretching from Tripoli in the east to Casablanca in the west and from the Mediterranean in the north to the Sahara in the south. Missionaries first arrived at the court of Kabaka Muteesa in 1877, almost a century after the missionary impetus from Europe had begun. SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY IN WEST AFRICA. Nevertheless, understanding the social, cultural, and religious factors that influenced the spread of the faith doesn’t make the ultimate cause of the movement any less supernatural in nature. The Catechetical School of Alexandria was founded in the late second century by Clement of Alexandria as a center for the study of the allegorical interpretation of the Bible. Christians can explain the rapid spread of Christianity with theological reasons. Factors Which Led to the Spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire Christianity was not born in a vacumn. The Church in Alexandria grew quickly in the 3rd century, and Alexandria's Bishop earned the title of Pope, and he was recognized as the senior Bishop in Egypt. Christianity appealed to a disaffected Egyptian populous through its representations of resurrection, an afterlife, virgin birth, and the possibility that a god could be killed and brought back, all of which resonated with more ancient Egyptian religious practice. Its Fertile Crescent contained one of the earliest culture hearths where civilization developed. The most significant record of Christian martyrdom, however, is that of March 203, during the reign of the Roman Emperor Septimus Severus (145--211 C.E., ruled 193--211), when Perpetua, a 22 year old noble, and Felicity, whom she enslaved, were martyred in Carthage (now a suburb of Tunis, Tunisia). After the crucifixion, the disciples spread out across the known world to take the word of God and the story of Jesus to the people. 1. A strange historical significance seems to surround the Middle East. Even the idea of holy trinity could be related to various godly triads which were taken to be three aspects of a single deity. And what kind of lives did they lead? Christianity was well established in Alexandria by the end of the first century C.E. Explain the factors involved in the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire both before and after the conversion of Constantine. Nearly 200 years after the first wave of missionaries arrived in Africa, Christianity is growing faster here than anywhere else in the world. Some religious scholars believe that Christianity was introduced to Africans by way of the Egyptian city of Alexandria. • Chapter 1: 'Geographical and Historical Background' & Chapter 5: 'Cyprian, the "Pope" of Carthage', in Early Christianity in North Africa by François Decret, trans. The Nile Valley was feeding Rome. Any discussion of Christianity in Uganda–the creation of colonialism at the end of the 19th Century–must begin with Bu… canals had been refreshed and agriculture was booming from improved irrigation. -Trade between Africa and Mesopotamia helped in the spread of iron working.-Migrating Bantus spread the skill.-Travelers and messengers spread the art by giving or receiving gifts of iron.-It was spread through warfare. His most important surviving work is the trilogy Protreptikos ('Exhortation'), Paidagogos ('The Instructor'), and the Stromateis ('Miscellanies') which considered and compared the role of myth and allegory in ancient Greece and contemporary Christianity. The oldest of these churches is the Tewahedo which enjoys a membership of around 45 to 50 million people. Saints Felicity and Perpetua are celebrated by a feast day on March 7th. Christianity is a proselytising religion, and many missionaries are spread around the word preaching to the unconverted. However, Emperor Decius ordered the persecution of the adherents of Christianity in mid-3rd century forcing Christians to seek refuge in the desert. By the end of the second century, Carthage had produced a pope (Victor I). 1. Under Augustus, the two provinces of Africa, Africa Vetus ('Old Africa') and Africa Nova ('New Africa'), were merged to form Africa Proconsularis (named for it being governed by a Roman proconsul). There were echoes of traditional religions to be found in Christianity which also proved key in the spread of the new religion. Urbanization would prove to be a key factor in the development of North African Christianity. In North Africa, however, Christianity was not merely eclipsed, it was supplanted. Christianity was also very attractive because it set out a code for morality. Within a short time the missionaries spread their activities inland. Geographical location and the patterns of caravan trade tied these five towns more closely to Egypt than to Carthage and the rest of the western states of North Africa. • 'The Christian period in Mediterranean Africa' by WHC Frend, in Cambridge History of Africa, Ed. ), the Egyptian city of Alexandria became a significant (if not the most significant) center for the development of Christianity. Develop an argument that evaluates how such factors led to the emergence or spread of one or more religions in this time period.” Maximum Possible Points: 6 . Philip encountered a man from Ethiopia on a road leading from Jerusalem to Gaza. Alexandria was also home to the Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Old Testament which traditional has it was created on the orders of Ptolemy II for the use of the large population of Alexandrian Jews. The positive intentions of Christianity were however overshadowed by the ills of the slave trade and commercial exploitation. records that Tertullian was ordained as a priest, but this has been challenged by Catholic scholars. The Spread of Christianity and Factors that Contributed to the Political and Religious Separation of the Early Church Since then, Africa has become a region predominantly inhabited by Christians and Muslims. Mark arrived in Egypt around 42 C.E., Philip traveled all the way to Carthage before heading east into Asia Minor, Matthew visited Ethiopia (by way of Persia), as did Bartholomew. However, we must distinguish between two obvious centers in the first century of the preaching of Christianity on the southern shores of the Mediterranean. Reformers in the missionary churches, as well as independent church leaders, agitated for changes in the institutionalized church. Reportedly, the city boasted a very large Jewish community, which was located in close proximity to Jerusalem. Tertullian became a member of the heretical and charismatic Montanistic order around 210 CE, given to fasting and the resultant experience of spiritual bliss and prophetic visitations. A new attempt to spread Christianity was made when the Church Missionary Society (CMS) arrived from Britain in 1821. In his early years, he traveled extensively around the Mediterranean and studied the Greek philosophers. Explain six factors that favoured the spread of Christianity in East Africa. The third key factor in the spread of Christianity through North Africa was the resentment of the population to Roman administration, particularly the imposition of taxes, and the demand that the Roman Emperor be worshiped akin to a God. Historical records, which come partially from a narrative believed to have been written by Perpetua herself, describe in detail the ordeal leading up to their death in the arena—wounded by beasts and put to the sword. G. Mokhtar, James Currey, 1990. From the fall of Carthage in 146 BCE to the rule of Emperor Augustus (from 27 BCE), Africa (or, more strictly speaking, Africa Vetus, 'Old Africa'), as the Roman province was known, was under the command of a minor Roman official. One person who brought Christianity to an African is Philip, as recounted in Acts 8:26–40. The Montanists were harsh moralists, but even they proved to lax for Tertullian in the end, and he founded his own sect a few years before 220 C.E. Victor I, born in the Roman province of Africa (now Tunisia), was pope from 189 to 198 C.E. Jewish Diaspora – During the Second Temple period, Jews were dispersed throughout the Mediterranean world. What were the causes of this phenomenal success? By the middle of the first century, churches had been established in northern African by early converts to Christianity. But, like Egypt, Africa and its neighbors Numidia and Mauritania (which were under the rule of client kings), were recognized as potential 'bread baskets'. The spread of the religion was rapid and was due to many factors. One center was in Cyrenaica, within reach of the influence of Alexandria. Given the slow progress of Romanization of North Africa, it is perhaps surprising how quickly Christianity spread across the top of the continent. The spread of Christianity throughout Egypt and Northern Africa, during the first five centuries was rapid and intense, despite the prevalence of false teachings, persecutions and martyrdom. The spread of the faith in Africa represents perhaps the most dramatic advance in all Christian history, and yet the names and stories of persons chiefly responsible are largely unknown. e g. the death of Coillard and his Wife in 1904 led to the collapse of the evangelical mission in Barotseland. Twelve Christians of African origin were martyred in Sicilli (Sicily) for refusing to perform a sacrifice to the Roman Emperor Commodus (aka Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus). Just as Christianity provided a driving force during the Kingdom of Aksum, leading Ezana to conquer neighboring lands, Islam likewise became a unifying and potent force throughout both North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa. Amongst people subdued by Roman authority in North Africa (Aegyptus, Cyrenaica, Africa, Numidia, and Mauritania) Christianity quickly became a religion of protest—it was a reason for them to ignore the requirement to honor the Roman Emperor through sacrificial ceremonies. Christianity enjoys widespread popularity in Africa particularly in the nations situated in the Southeast, Southern, and Central regions of the continent. Origen, head of the School of Alexandria in the early third century, is also noted for compiling a comparison of six translations of the old testament—the Hexapla. Factors Which Influenced the Spread Of Christianity, Alexandria as an Early Center of Christianity, Latin as the Language of Western Christianity, 6 Important People in Ancient African History. In Africa Proconsularis and its neighbors, there was a resonance to traditional Gods through the concept of a supreme being. However, the colonisation of sub-Saharan Africa and the New World provided new outlets for the spread of Christianity. Points Rubric Notes A: Thesis/Claim (0 – 1) Clement attempted to mediate between the heretical Gnostics and the orthodox Christian church and set the stage for the development of monasticism in Egypt later in the third century. By 212 C.E., the Edict of Caracalla (aka Constitutio Antoniniana, 'Constitution of Antoninus') issued, as one might expect, by the Emperor Caracalla, declared that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be acknowledged as Roman Citizens (up till then, provincials, as they were known, did not have citizenship rights). This meant, of course, that the otherwise 'open-minded' Roman Empire could no longer take a nonchalant attitude to Christianity—persecution, and repression of the religion soon followed, which in turn hardened the Christian converts to their cult. 5 Factors That Led To The Spread Of Islam In Nigeria - Religion - Nairaland. Victor I (189-99), the first bishop of Rome to … There has been a notable growth in the population of Christians residing in Africa while on the other hand observance of traditional African religions has been on a decline. Christianity spread due to its universality, its familiarity to the Roman people, and the fact that it gave people hope. The World Book Encyclopedia has stipulated that Christians constitute 80% of Africa's population in 2002. It is believed that African … Because North Africa was heavily under Roman rule, Christianity was spread through the region by the use of Latin rather than Greek. One of the most important Christian theologians and biblical scholars was Oregenes Adamantius, aka Origen (c.185--254 C.E.). Cyrenaica (the easternmost part of Libya) was known as the Pentapolis, or the five towns: Cyrene (modern-day Shaḥḥāt), Apollonia (Marsa Gona), Ptolemaïs (Tolmeta), Berenice (Benghazi), and Barce (Barka). It had a mostly friendly rivalry with the School of Antioch which was based around a literal interpretation of the Bible. Early Christianity was primarily an urban faith, establishing itself in the city centers of the Roman Empire. Two thousand years later, Christian presence has left indelible marks on the continent—some positive, some less so. Titus Flavius Clemens (150--211/215 C.E. It has served as the birth place for many cultures and religions. Outside of the cities, life was less influenced by Roman culture. Some of his beliefs about the transmigration of souls and universal reconciliation (or apokatastasis, a belief that all men and women, and even Lucifer, would ultimately be saved), were declared heretical in 553 C.E., and he was posthumously excommunicated by the Council of Constantinople in 453 C.E. At the turn of the 20th century, Christianity was virtually nonexistent in many parts of Africa but is now the faith of the majority. Although Jesus was dead, his teachings were still very much alive and thriving within his followers. North Africa, however, Christianity was not merely eclipsed, it was supplanted.1 Tertullian, the "Father of Latin Christianity," had labored in North Africa during the latter years of the second century and the early years of the third. There were many social, geographical, historical and religious issues prevailing at the time of Christ and all of which were favorable to the spread of Christianity. Important Africans who influenced the early development of Christianity include Tertullian, Perpetua, Felicity, Clement of Alexandria, Origen of Alexandria, Cyprian, Athanasius and Augustine of Hippo. Christianity gave something to the people of the Roman Empire that they had never experienced before. Some religious scholars believe that Christianity was introduced to Africans by way of the Egyptian city of Alexandria. It was during the reign of Emperor Commodus (161--192 C.E., ruled from 180 to 192) that the first of three 'African' Popes was invested. The term “North Africa”, in classical and early medieval times, meant essentially Proconsular Africa. While Christianity was made the … Emperor Augustus (63 B.C.E.--14 C.E.) It is no coincidence that Islam has become the second largest and the fastest growing religion in the world (Esposito 2002:1). Tertullian converted to Christianity in Rome during his twenties, but it was not until his return to Carthage that his strengths as a teacher and defender of Christian beliefs were recognized. Romans were enticed by the availability of land for building estates and wealth, and during the first century C.E., north Africa was heavily colonized by Rome. Born in Carthage, a cultural center much influenced by Roman authority, Tertullian is the first Christian author to write extensively in Latin, for which he was known as the 'Father of Western Theology'. Explain the factors involved in the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire both before and after the conversion of Constantine. It was a direct statement against Roman rule. The faith spread as neighbors saw the lives of the believers close-up, on a daily basis. African Christianity thus blossomed from the seeds planted by western Missionaries, and it developed its cultural identity. The Portuguese attempted to introduce a Catholic-influenced form of Christianity between the 16th and 18th centuries in the Kongo Kingdom, but it did not last for long. Because North Africa was heavily under Roman rule, Christianity was spread through the region by the use of Latin rather than Greek. Venn sought to develop an African Church by urging missionaries to move on after the seeds had been sown and leaving the native leaders to develop their church. Alexandria considered the second city after Rome, had 150,000 inhabitants by the third century. was another prolific Christian. The religion is also present in some nations in the Northeast and also the Western region. Christianity arrived in Africa in the late 1st or early 2nd century AD, making these Christian communities some of the earliest in the world. Despite those efforts, the spread of Christianity was very slow. ), aka Clement of Alexandria, was a Hellenistic theologian and the first president of the Catechetical School of Alexandria. Ali Unal . From the seventh century onwards, Muslim traders from the Maghreb and the Sahara started settling first in some of the market centres in the Sahel and then in the Savanna areas. Traditional Gods were still worshipped, such as the Phonecian Ba'al Hammon (equivalent to Saturn) and Ba'al Tanit (a goddess of fertility) in Africa Proconsuaris and Ancient Egyptian beliefs of Isis, Osiris, and Horus. Related but distinct from that are the historical reasons why Christianity was able to be successful. 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